Федеральные арбитражные суды
The Supreme Arbitration (Commercial) Court of the Russian Federation is the body of state authority that heads one of the branches of the judicial power in the country - the system of arbitration (commercial) courts.
Under Article 127 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the superior judicial body for the resolution of economic disputes and other cases examined by arbitration courts, it exercises judicial supervision over their activity in the procedural forms envisaged by law and issues explanations on matters of judicial practice. The Supreme Arbitration Court is a part of the country's unified judicial system together with the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, which heads the courts of general jurisdiction.
The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation operates in the following composition:
The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation acts as a trial court in the following categories of cases:
One of the most important lines in the activity of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is to ensure the uniform understanding and application by all arbitration courts of the legislation in the sphere of economic relations.
The fulfillment of this task is exercised by studying and summarizing the judicial practice and through the adoption of appropriate explanations by the Plenum or by the Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation.
Тhe Plenum is made up of the Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and the judges of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation. Representatives of other branches of the judicial power, the legislative and executive authorities, scientific institutions and rank-and-file citizens may take part in sessions of the Plenum. It is empowered to decide on legislative initiative, on submission to the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of requests for verifying the constitutionality of laws, normative legal acts and agreements, it also approves the Rules of procedure for the arbitration courts.
The Judicial collegia of the Supreme Arbitration Court hear cases in the first instance, study and summarise judicial practice, work out proposals for the improvement of laws and normative legal acts, as well as exercise other authorities in accordance with the Rules of procedure.
The law empowers the Supreme Arbitration Court to provide organizational support to the arbitration courts, to select and train the candidates for judges, to maintain advanced training and upgrading of skills and qualification of judges and staff members of arbitration courts and to finance the arbitration courts.
Under the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation there is the Council of the chairmen of arbitration courts, which operates as a consultative body for consideration of matters related to the organizational, personnel and financial activities. In order to prepare scientifically - substantiated recommendations concerning the formation of the practice of application of laws and other normative acts as well as to work out proposals for their improvements, a Scientific - advisory council has been formed at the Supreme Arbitration Court. The Council is made up of sections dealing with procedural legislation, administrative law, civil law, and international private law.
There are 53 judges in the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation among them 6 doctors of Law and 6 masters of Law. 20 judges and other staff members bear the honourary title of "Honoured Jurist of the Russian Federation".
For the purpose of ensuring full and independent administration of justice in accordance with federal laws, the financing of the system of arbitration courts is provided from the funds of the federal budget. Expenses for the maintenance of arbitration courts are envisaged as a separate line-item in the federal budget.
The organ of press of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the "Vestnik of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation".